# Probability

- 1
- Math Surprises: An Example
- Page http://www.cut-the-knot.org/ctk/August2001.shtml
- Buffon's Needle simulation and a surprising demonstration of Barbier's theorem about shapes of constant width

- 2
- Parrondo Paradox
- Page http://www.cut-the-knot.org/ctk/Parrondo.shtml
- Parrondo Paradox simulation and a demonstration of the ratchet effect.

- 3
- Probabilistic Learning Activities Network
- Page http://www.planetqhe.com/
- Probability activities and simulations in the form of applets and spreadsheets. This site advocates a Question/Hypothesis/Experiment approach to learning probability.

- 5
- Probability Guide for Non-mathematicians
- Page http://probability.infarom.ro/
- Probability theory basics, applications (including to gambling), interpretations, books, free texts.

- 6
- The Collector's Problem and the Two-Dimensional Factorial
- Page http://www.jefflindsay.com/2dfactorial.shtml
- In finding a new solution to a classic probability problem concerning the collection of items in a set, a new and useful recursive function has been found, the "two-dimensional factorial."

- 7
- The Laymans Guide to Probability
- Page http://www.probabilitytheory.info/
- An in-depth but easily readable guide on probability theory, covering various aspects of theory with a bias to gambling games.

- 8
- Benford's Law and Google
- Page http://www.reapwhatyouseo.com/index.php/benfords-law-google/
- Article discussing how search engines could make use of Benford's law to reveal anomalies.

- 9
- Benford's Law and Zipf's Law.
- Page http://www.cut-the-knot.org/do_you_know/zipfLaw.shtml
- With the view to the eerie but uniform distribution of digits of randomly selected numbers, it comes as a great surprise that, if the numbers under investigation are not entirely random but somehow socially or naturally related, the distribution of the first digit is not uniform.

- 10
- BenfordWiz
- Page http://www.members.tripod.com/benfordwiz/
- Software which produces and analyses Benford Sets. Hexagonal and Octagonal numbers are also included in the data sets.

- 11
- Fun and Fraud Detection with Benford's Law
- Page http://www.kirix.com/blog/2008/07/22/fun-and-fraud-detection-with-benfords-law/
- Explains the law, includes a video demonstration and some reader responses.

- 12
- Wikipedia: Benford's Law
- Page http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Benford%27s_law
- Encyclopedia article on this law, its history, explanations and applications.

- 13
- Following Benford's Law, or Looking Out for No.1
- Page http://www.math.yorku.ca/Who/Faculty/Brettler/bc_98/benford.html
- Dr.Theodore P. Hill asks his mathematics students at the Georgia Institute of Technology to go home and either flip a coin 200 times and record the results, or merely pretend to flip a coin and fake 200 results. (August 04, 1998)

- 14
- Probability Tutorials
- Page http://www.probability.net/
- Tutorials in measure theory, lebesgue integration and probability, by Noel Vaillant

- 15
- Introduction to Probability
- Page http://www.dartmouth.edu/~chance/teaching_aids/books_articles/probability_book/book.html
- An online textbook in PDF format, by Charles M. Grinstead and J. Laurie Snell

- 16
- Introduction to probability
- Page http://www.math.harvard.edu/~knill/index.html
- A comprehensive course in probability by Oliver Knill

- 17
- Mike McLaughin's Probability Distributions Compendium
- Page http://www.geocities.com/~mikemclaughlin/math_stat/Dists/Compendium.pdf
- Document describing many common probability distributions and their properties including, pdf, cdf, moments, and random variate generation. [PDF]

- 18
- Probability and Random Process Class Notes
- Page http://www.ece.uah.edu/courses/ee420-500/
- Class notes for a university course on probability and random processes, by John L. Stensby. Notes are in .pdf format. Introductory through advanced topics are covered.