# Probability

- 1
- Math Surprises: An Example
- Buffon's Needle simulation and a surprising demonstration of Barbier's theorem about shapes of constant width

- 3
- Probabilistic Learning Activities Network
- Probability activities and simulations in the form of applets and spreadsheets. This site advocates a Question/Hypothesis/Experiment approach to learning probability.

- 5
- The Collector's Problem and the Two-Dimensional Factorial
- In finding a new solution to a classic probability problem concerning the collection of items in a set, a new and useful recursive function has been found, the "two-dimensional factorial."

- 6
- Benford's Law and Google
- Article discussing how search engines could make use of Benford's law to reveal anomalies.

- 7
- Benford's Law and Zipf's Law.
- With the view to the eerie but uniform distribution of digits of randomly selected numbers, it comes as a great surprise that, if the numbers under investigation are not entirely random but somehow socially or naturally related, the distribution of the first digit is not uniform.

- 8
- BenfordWiz
- Software which produces and analyses Benford Sets. Hexagonal and Octagonal numbers are also included in the data sets.

- 9
- Fun and Fraud Detection with Benford's Law
- Explains the law, includes a video demonstration and some reader responses.

- 10
- Wikipedia: Benford's Law
- Encyclopedia article on this law, its history, explanations and applications.

- 11
- Following Benford's Law, or Looking Out for No.1
- Dr.Theodore P. Hill asks his mathematics students at the Georgia Institute of Technology to go home and either flip a coin 200 times and record the results, or merely pretend to flip a coin and fake 200 results. (August 04, 1998)

- 12
- Probability Tutorials
- Tutorials in measure theory, lebesgue integration and probability, by Noel Vaillant

- 13
- Introduction to Probability
- An online textbook in PDF format, by Charles M. Grinstead and J. Laurie Snell

- 15
- Probability and Random Process Class Notes
- Class notes for a university course on probability and random processes, by John L. Stensby. Notes are in .pdf format. Introductory through advanced topics are covered.

- 17
- Stochastic Calculus Notes
- These notes by Alan Bain provide a complete elementary introduction to stochastic integration with respect to continuous semimartingales.